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在人脑追逐抽动症:抽动秽语综合症脑深部刺激的开放、计划和闭环反应途径的发展

  Chasing Tics in the Human Brain: Development of Open, Scheduled and Closed Loop Responsive Approaches to Deep Brain Stimulation for Tourette Syndrome

J Clin Neurol. 2015 Apr; 11(2): 122–131.

  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4387477/

  Abstract

  Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by a combination of motor and vocal tics, often associated with psychiatric comorbidities including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite an onset early in life, half of patients may present symptoms in adulthood, with variable degrees of severity. In select cases, the syndrome may lead to significant physical and social impairment, and a worrisome risk for self injury. Evolving research has provided evidence supporting the idea that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is directly related to a disrupted circuit involving the cortex and subcortical structures, including the basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala. There has also been a notion that a dysfunctional group of neurons in the putamen contributes to an abnormal facilitation of competing motor responses in basal ganglia structures ultimately underpinning the generation of tics. Surgical therapies for Tourette syndrome have been reserved for a small group of patients not responding to behavioral and pharmacological therapies, and these therapies have been directed at modulating the underlying pathophysiology. Lesion therapy as well as deep brain stimulation has been observed to suppress tics in at least some of these cases. In this article, we will review the clinical aspects of Tourette syndrome, as well as the evolution of surgical approaches and we will discuss the evidence and clinical responses to deep brain stimulation in various brain targets. We will also discuss ongoing research and future directions as well as approaches for open, scheduled and closed loop feedback-driven electrical stimulation for the treatment of Tourette syndrome.

  Keywords: deep brain stimulation, Tourette syndrome, tics, closed-loop brain stimulation